Main Article Content
In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture models have earned great attention, especially in the field of human cancer disease modelling research as they provide a promising alternative towards the conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture of cells with improved tissue organization. In 2D cell culture systems, the complexity of cells on a planar surface does not accurately reflects the in vivo cellular microenvironment. Cells propagated in 3D cell culture model, on the other hand, exhibit physiologically relevant cell-to-cell interactions and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, important in maintaining a normal homeostasis and specificity of tissues. This review gives an overview on 2D models and their limitations, followed by 3D cell culture models, their advantages, drawbacks and challenges in present perspectives. The review also highlights the dissimilarities of 2D and 3D models and the applicability of 3D models in current cancer research.