Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Extract Activity on Human Oral Fibroblasts (HOrF) Cell Line


  • Sama Naziyah Shaban Faculty of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Khairani Idah Mokhtar Faculty of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan Faculty of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Abdelkader Elbadawy Abbas Ashour Faculty of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Basma Ezzat Mustafa Alahmad Faculty of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia


L. usitatissimum, GC-MS, MTT, HOrF, wound healing assay


Introduction: General health benefits have been demonstrated by natural products. Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) extract’s bioactivities have been reported in many studies such as antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, flaxseed extract has skin wound healing activity and potential for treating oral ulcers. Methodology: L. usitatissimum was extracted using 70% ethanol via soxhlet method, gas chromatography mass spectrum (GC-MS) was used to illustrate the components of L. usitatissimum extract. Human oral fibroblasts (HOrF) were cultured to be used for testing the activity of L. usitatissimum. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess the HOrF cells viability at different time point; 24, 48 and 72 hours. Wound healing assay was used to monitor the healing of HOrF cells after treating them with flaxseed extract. The results of the assay were obtained at 18, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Results: The results of GC-MS illustrate the major components present in L. usitatissimum extract. The effect of L. usitatissimum extract on HOrF cells show high proliferation effect at 24 and 48 hours while the highest proliferation effect was recorded at 72 hours’ post-treatment. Wound healing assay results show healing activity of L. usitatissimum extract on HOrF cells as fast as 18 hours’ post-treatment. Conclusion: L. usitatissimum extract have proliferating and healing effects on HOrF cell line. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential promising oral wound healing agent.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Zhang ZS, Li D, Wang LJ, Ozkan N, Chen XD, Mao ZH, Yang HZ. Optimization of ethanol-water extraction of lignans from flaxseed. Separation and Purification Technology. 2007 Oct 1;57(1):17-24.
2. Ganorkar, P. M., & Jain, R. K. (2013). Flaxseed--a nutritional punch. International Food Research Journal, 20(2).
3. Millam S, Obert B, Pret’ová A. Plant cell and biotechnology studies in Linum usitatissimum–a review. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture. 2005 Jul 1;82(1):93-103.
4. Azrad M, Vollmer RT, Madden J, Dewhirst M, Polascik TJ, Snyder DC, Ruffin MT, Moul JW, Brenner DE, Demark- Wahnefried W. Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer. Journal of medicinal food. 2013 Apr 1;16(4):357-60.
5. Ahmad N, Akhtar N, Ali S. Effects of Aqueous Methanolic Extract of Flax Seeds (Linum usitatissimum) on Serum Estradiol, Progesterone, Kidney and Liver Functions and Some Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Female Rats. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 2012 Jun 1;32(2).
6. Beroual K, Agabou A, Bachtarzi K, Haouam S, Hamdi-Pacha Y. Safety assessment of Linum usitatissimum (Linn.) ingestion in New Zealand rabbits. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2016;13(2):151-5.
7. Singh KK, Mridula D, Rehal J, Barnwal P. Flaxseed: a potential source of food, feed and fiber. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2011 Feb 28;51(3):210-22.
8. Zanwar A, Hegde M, Bodhankar S. Cardioprotective activity of flax lignan concentrate extracted from seeds of Linum usitatissimum in isoprenalin induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Interdisciplinary toxicology. 2011 Jun 1;4(2):90-7.
9. Touré A, Xueming X. Flaxseed lignans: source, biosynthesis, metabolism, antioxidant activity, bio-active components, and health benefits. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety. 2010 May;9(3):261-9.
10. Fadzir UA, Mokhtar KI, Mustafa BE, Darnis DS. Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds on Different Extracts of Linum Usitatissimum and Its Antimicrobial Properties against Selected Oral Pathogens. Makara Journal of Health Research. 2018 Dec 28.
11. Nordin NS, Mokhtar KI, Isa ML, Idid SZ, Lestari W, Mustafa BE, Ikhwan SJ, Darnis DS, Ahmad A, Kannan TP. Flaxseed ethanolic crude extract influences growth of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Journal of International Dental and Medical Research. 2018 May 1;11(2):643-9.
12. De Rijke E, Fellner C, Westerveld J, Lopatka M, Cerli C, Kalbitz K, De Koster CG. Determination of n-alkanes in C. annuum (bell pepper) fruit and seed using GC-MS: comparison of extraction methods and application to samples of different geographical origin. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2015 Jul 1;407(19):5729-38.
13. Ghosh JC, Siegelin MD, Dohi T, Altieri DC. Heat shock protein 60 regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in tumor cells. Cancer research. 2010 Nov 15;70(22):8988-93.
14. Sylvester PW. Optimization of the tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay for cellular growth and viability. InDrug design and discovery 2011 (pp. 157-168). Humana Press.
15. Zubair M, Ekholm A, Nybom H, Renvert S, Widen C, Rumpunen K. Effects of Plantago major L. leaf extracts on oral epithelial cells in a scratch assay. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jun 14;141(3):825-30.
16. Ray B, Bisht S, Maitra A, Maitra A, Lahiri DK. Neuroprotective and neurorescue effects of a novel polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) in the neuronal cell culture and animal model: implications for Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's disease. 2011 Jan 1;23(1):61-77.
17. Sharma M, Dadhwal K, Gat Y, Kumar V, Panghal A, Prasad R, Kaur S, Gat P. A review on newer techniques in extraction of oleaginous flaxseed constituents. OCL. 2019;26:14.
18. Waszkowiak K, Gliszczyńska-Świgło A. Binary ethanol–water solvents affect phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of flaxseed extracts. European Food Research and Technology. 2016 May 1;242(5):777-86.
19. Waszkowiak K, Gliszczyńska-Świgło A, Barthet V, Skręty J. Effect of extraction method on the phenolic and cyanogenic glucoside profile of flaxseed extracts and their antioxidant capacity. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 2015 Dec 1;92(11-12):1609-19.
20. Zhang ZS, Li D, Wang LJ, Ozkan N, Chen XD, Mao ZH, Yang HZ. Optimization of ethanol–water extraction of lignans from flaxseed. Separation and Purification Technology. 2007 Oct 1;57(1):17-24.
21. Anwar F, Przybylski R. Effect of solvents extraction on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of extracts from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). ACTA Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 2012 Sep 30;11(3):293-302.
22. Perretti G, Virgili C, Troilo A, Marconi O, Regnicoli GF, Fantozzi P. Supercritical antisolvent fractionation of lignans from the ethanol extract of flaxseed. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 2013 Mar 1;75:94-100.
23. Chauhan R, Chester K, Khan Y, Tamboli ET, Ahmad S. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences. 2015 Oct;7(4):284.
24. Khattab RY, Zeitoun MA. Quality evaluation of flaxseed oil obtained by different extraction techniques. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2013 Sep 1;53(1):338-45.
25. García-Hernández VM, Hojjati M, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA, Sánchez-Soriano J, Roche E, García-García E. Comparison of soxhlet and ultrasound methods for oil extraction from Spanish flaxseeds. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 2019 Jan 12;2019:332-6.
26. Alberdi-Cedeño J, Ibargoitia ML, Guillén MD. A Global Study by 1H NMR Spectroscopy and SPME-GC/MS of the in Vitro Digestion of Virgin Flaxseed Oil Enriched or not with Mono-, Di-or Tri-Phenolic Derivatives. Antioxidant Efficiency of These Compounds. Antioxidants. 2020 Apr;9(4):312.
27. Sangeetha K, Steffi PF, Selvi BT, Priyadarshni S. Phytochemical Evaluation, GC-MS Analysis of Phytoactive Compounds and Antibacterial Activity Studies from Calotropis gigantea. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2020 Jun 1;12(6):789-94.
28. Beroual K, Agabou A, Abdeldjelil MC, Boutaghane N, Haouam S, Hamdi-Pacha Y. Evaluation of crude flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil in burn wound healing in New Zealand rabbits. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2017;14(3):280-6.
29. Shaban SN, Mokhtar KI, Ichwan SJ, Al-Ahmad BE. Potential Effects of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) in Tissue Reparative Processes: A Mini Review. Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (JBCS). 2020 Aug 10;5(1):1-7.
30. Lewinska A, Zebrowski J, Duda M, Gorka A, Wnuk M. Fatty acid profile and biological activities of linseed and rapeseed oils. Molecules. 2015 Dec;20(12):22872-80.






Original/Research Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)