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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs and DOIs for the references have been provided.
  • The text uses a 12-point font; 1.5 spacing, employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
  • Full research articles should be between 7,000 and 8,000 words in length (including tables, figures, endnotes and references).
  • Manuscripts submitted to the journal must be original. Authors of submitted manuscripts are obligated to not submit their manuscripts for publication elsewhere until an editorial decision is rendered. All submissions are subject to external double-blind refereeing.
  • The number of authors for each manuscript is limited to a maximum of five (5) authors and the description of their diverse contributions should be provided in the cover page. A sample of the CRediT (contributor roles taxonomy): (i) conceptualization/ formulation of ideas; (ii) development/ design of methodology; (iii) data collection/ curation;  (iv) formal analysis/ techniques; and (v) writing - original draft.
  • All submissions must be in two separate Microsoft Word documents:
  • Cover page with full details of the authors including: details of the authors' institutional affiliation, full address and contact information, and exact length of the manuscripts.  The cover page should also include CRediT author statement (the roles of all authors should be listed using the relevant above categories) and any acknowledgements. One author should be identified as the corresponding author and the latter is responsible for ensuring that the contributions of all authors are accurate and agreed by all authors; and
  • Manuscripts without any author identification/name, that fully matches the journal house style. Ensure that all identifiers have been removed from the Microsoft Word document. 
  • For research involving human subjects, authors should include evidence of ethical approval, including the name of the committee that provided approval, within the manuscript. If no approval was granted, authors must be able to provide sufficient evidence for why their studies should be exempted from this policy. Authors are encouraged to explain the reason for the exemption within the manuscript.

  • Manuscripts should be of a high standard of English, i.e., they should be clear, well-articulated and comprehensible.
  • Manuscripts must follow British spelling throughout and should be written using MS Word, with Times New Roman font type size 12 with 1.5 line spacing. Foreign words should be in italics. The length should be between 7,000 words to 8,000 words (including tables, figures, endnotes and references).
  • The manuscripts should begin with an indented and italicized abstract of around 200 words, describing the main arguments and conclusions of the article,
  • Each manuscript should have five (5) keywords, followed by three (3) relevant JEL Classification codes.
  • Tables and figures should be numbered separately and sequentially using Arabic numerals and placed at the end of the manuscript. Each table and figure should be given an informative title.
  • Endnotes should be kept to a minimum, indicated by superscript figures in the text, and placed at the end of the manuscript.
  • References are cited in the text by the author's surname, and the publication year. Full details are given in the reference list.
  • References list should follow the APA reference style. All journal articles should include the doi.
  • There will be a publication fee of USD100 for accepted papers only (papers that have undergone the double-blind review process) to partially cover the expenses of copy editing of accepted papers. Important Note: Submissions made from 1/1/2024 and accepted for publication will be subject to a publication fee of RM500/-.
  • Payment of the publication fee should only be done upon the acceptance of the paper. The detailed information of the payment process can be seen here. The payment can be made at this website.


Book Reviews

Ordinary book reviews are limited to 1,500 words maximum, focusing on publications of no more than five years old. The author, book title, city/publisher, year and total number of book page should be listed at the top of the book review.

All book reviews should be submitted to the Editor-In-Chief: ijie@um.edu.my